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Surah Al-Fajr

Ayat/pg: 5 | 10 | 15 | 20 | All

Maududi's Commentry (Tafseer) on Surah Al-Fajr

Mecca Mecca (10)
30Total Ayat: 30
1Total Ruku: 1


The Surah is so designated after the word wal-fajr with which it opens.

Period of Revelation

Its contents show that it was revealed at the stage when persecutionof the new converts to Islam had begun in Makkah. On that very basisthe people of Makkah have been warned of the evil end of the tribes ofAd and Thamud and of Pharaoh.

Theme and Subject Matter

Its theme is to affirm the meting out of rewards and punishments inthe Hereafter, which the people of Makkah were not prepared toacknowledge, Let us consider the reasoning in the order in which ithas been presented.

First of all, swearing oaths by the dawn, the tennights, the even and the odd, and the departing night, the listenershave been asked: "Are these things not enough to testify to the truthof that which you are refusing to acknowledge?" From the explanationthat we have given of these four things in the corresponding notes, itwill become clear that these things are a symbol of the regularitythat exists in the night and day, and swearing oaths by these thequestion has been asked in the sense: Even after witnessing this wisesystem established by God, do you still need any other evidence toshow that it is not beyond the power of that God Who has brought aboutthis system to establish the Hereafter, and that it is the veryrequirement of his wisdom that He should call man to account for hisdeeds?

Then, reasoning from man's own history, the evil end of the Adand the Thamud and Pharaoh has been cited as an example to show thatwhen they transgressed all limits and multiplied corruption in theearth, Allah laid upon them the scourge of His chastisement. This is aproof of the fact that the system of the universe is not being run bydeaf and blind forces, nor is the world a lawless kingdom of a corruptruler, but a Wise Ruler is ruling over it, the demand of Whose wisdomand justice is continuously visible in the world itself in man's ownhistory that He should call to account, and reward and punishaccordingly, the being whom He has blessed with reason and moral senseand given the right of appropriation in the world.

After this, anappraisal has been made of the general moral state of human society ofwhich Arab paganism was a conspicuous example; two aspects of it inparticular, have been criticized: first the materialistic attitude ofthe people on account of which overlooking the moral good and evil,they regarded only the achievement of worldly wealth, rank andposition, or the absence of it, as the criterion of honor or disgrace,and had forgotten that neither riches was a reward nor poverty apunishment, but that Allah is trying man in both conditions to seewhat attitude he adopts when blessed with wealth and how he behaveswhen afflicted by poverty. Second, the people's attitude under whichthe orphan child in their society was left destitute on the death ofthe father. Nobody asked after the poor; whoever could, usurped thewhole heritage left by the deceased parent, and drove away the weakheirs fraudulently. The people were so afflicted with an insatiablegreed for wealth that they were never satisfied however much theymight hoard and amass. This criticism is meant to make them realize asto why the people with such an attitude and conduct in the life of theworld should not be called to account for their misdeeds.

Thediscourse has been concluded with the assertion that accountabilityshall certainly be held and it will be held on the Day when the DivineCourt will be established. At that time the deniers of the judgmentwill understand that which they are not understanding now in spite ofinstruction and admonition, but understanding then will be of no avail.The denier will regret and say, "Would that I had provided for thisDay beforehand while I lived in the world." But his regrets will notsave him from Allah's punishment. However, as for the people who wouldhave accepted the Truth, which the heavenly books and the Prophets ofGod were presenting, with full satisfaction of the heart in the world,Allah will be pleased with them and they will be well pleased with therewards bestowed by Allah. They will be called upon to join therighteous and enter Paradise.

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114. An-Nas
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