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Surah Al-Hashr

Ayat/pg: 5 | 10 | 15 | 20 | All

Maududi's Commentry (Tafseer) on Surah Al-Hashr

Madina Madina (101)
24Total Ayat: 24
3Total Ruku: 3

Name

The Surah derives its name from the mention of the word al-hashr inverse thereby implying that it is the Surah in which the word al-hashrhas occurred.

Period of Revelation

Bukhari and Muslim contain a tradition from Hadrat Sa'id bin Jubair tothe effect "When I asked Hadrat Abdullah bin Abbas about Surah Al-Hashr,he replied that it was sent down concerning the battle against theBani an-Nadir just as Surah Al-Anfal was sent down concerning theBattle of Badr. In another tradition from Hadrat Sa'id bin Jubair, thewords cited from Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) are: Qul:Surah an-Nadir: Say, it is Surah an-Nadir." The same thing has beenrelated also from Mujahid, Qatadah, Zuhri, Ibn Zaid, Yazid bin Ruman,Muhammad bin Ishaq and others. They are unanimous that the followersof the Book whose banishment has been mentioned in it, imply the Banian-Nadir. Yazid bin Ruman, Mujahid and Muhammad bin Ishaq have statedthat this whole Surah, from beginning to end, came down concerning thisvery battle.

As for the question as to when this battle took place,Imam Zuhri has stated on the authority of Urwah bin Zubair that ittook place six months after the Battle of Badr. However, Ibn Sa'd, IbnHisham and Baladhuri regard it as an event of Rabi' al-Awwal, A. H. 4,and the same is correct. For all traditions agree that this battletook place after the incident of Bi'r Ma'unah, and historically alsoit is well known that the incident of Bir Ma'unah occurred after theBattle of Uhud and not before it.

Historical Background

In order to understand the subject matter of this Surah well, it isnecessary to have a look at the history of the Madinah and Hejaz Jews,for without it one cannot know precisely the real causes of the HolyProphet's dealing with their different tribes the way he did.

Noauthentic history of the Arabian Jews exists in the world. They havenot left any writing of their own in the form of a book or a tabletwhich might throw light on their past, nor have the Jewish historiansand writers of the non-Arab world made any mention of them, the reasonbeing that after their settlement in the Arabian peninsula they haddetached themselves from the main body of the nation, and the Jews ofthe world did not count them as among themselves. For they had givenup Hebrew culture and language, even the names, and adopted Arabisminstead. In the tablets that have been unearthed in the archaeologicalresearch in the Hejaz no trace of the Jews is found before the firstcentury of the Christian era, except for a few Jewish names. Therefore,the history of the Arabian Jews is based mostly on the verbaltraditions prevalent among the Arabs most of which bad been spread bythe Jews themselves.

The Jews of the Hejaz claimed that they had cometo settle in Arabia during the last stage of the life of the ProphetMoses (peace be upon him). They said that the Prophet Moses haddespatched an army to expel the Amalekites from the land of Yathriband had commanded it not to spare even a single soul of that tribe.The Israelite army carried out the Prophet's command, but spared thelife of a handsome prince of the Amalekite king and returned with himto Palestine. By that time the Prophet Moses had passed sway. Hissuccessors took great exception to what the army had done, for bysparing the life of an Amalekite it had clearly disobeyed the Prophetand violated the Mosaic law. Consequently, they excluded the army fromtheir community, and it had to return to Yathrib and settle there forever.(Kitab al-Aghani, vol. xix, p. 94). Thus the Jews claimed thatthey had been living in Yathrib since about 1200 B.C. But, this had infact no historical basis and probably the Jews had invented this storyin order to overawe the Arabs into believing that they were of noblelineage and the original inhabitants of the land.

The second Jewishimmigration, according to the Jews, took, place in 587 BC. whenNebuchadnezzer, the king of Babylon, destroyed Jerusalem and dispersedthe Jews throughout the world. The Arab Jews said that several oftheir tribes at that time had come to settle in Wadi al-Qura, Taima,and Yathrib.(Al-Baladhuri, Futuh al-Buldan). But this too has nohistorical basis. By this also they might have wanted to prove thatthey were the original settlers of the area.

As a matter of fact, whatis established is that when in A. D. 70 the Romans massacred the Jewsin Palestine, and then in A. D. 132 expelled them from that land, manyof the Jewish tribes fled to find an asylum in the Hejaz, a territorythat was contiguous to Palestine in the south. There, they settledwherever they found water springs and greenery, and then by intrigueand through money lending business gradually occupied the fertilelands. Ailah, Maqna, Tabuk, Taima, Wadi al Qura, Fadak and Khaibercame under their control in that very period, and Bani Quraizah, Banial-Nadir, Bani Bahdal, and Bani Qainuqa also came in the same periodand occupied Yathrib.

Among the tribes that settled in Yathrib theBani al Nadir and the Bani Quraizah were more prominent for theybelonged to the Cohen or priest class. They were looked upon as ofnoble descent and enjoyed religious leadership among their co-religionists. When they came to settle in Madinah there were someother tribes living there before, whom they subdued and becamepractically the owners of this green and fertile land. About threecenturies later, in A. D. 450 or 451, the great flood of Yamanoccurred which has been mentioned in vv. 16-17 of Surah Saba above. As aresult of this different tribes of the people of Saba were compelledto leave Yaman and disperse in different parts of Arabia. Thus, theBani Ghassan went to settle in Syria, Bani Lakhm in Hirah (Iraq), BaniKhuzaah between Jeddah and Makkah and the Aus and the Khazraj went tosettle in Yathrib. As Yathrib was under Jewish domination, they atfirst did not allow the Aus and the Khazraj to gain a footing and thetwo Arab tribes had to settle on lands that had not yet been broughtunder cultivation, where they could hardly produce just enough toenable them to survive. At last, one of their chiefs went to Syria toask for the assistance of their Ghassanide brothers; he brought anarmy from there and broke the power of the Jews. Thus, the Aus and theKhazraj were able to gain complete dominance over Yathrib, with theresult that two of the major Jewish tribes, Bani an-Nadir and BaniQuraizaha were forced to take quarters outside the city. Since thethird tribe, Bani Qainuqa, was not on friendly terms with the othertwo tribes, it stayed inside the city as usual, but had to seekprotection of the Khazraj tribe. As a counter measure to this Bani an--Nadir and Bani Quraizah took protection of the Aus tribe so that theycould live in peace in the suburbs of Yathrib.

Before the HolyProphet's arrival at Madinah until his emigration the following werethe main features of the Jews position in Hejaz in general and inYathrib in particular:

  1. In the matter of language, dress,civilization and way of life they had completely adopted Arabism, eventheir names had become Arabian. Of the 12 Jewish tribes that hadsettled in Hejaz, none except the Bani Zaura retained its Hebrew name.Except for a few scattered scholars none knew Hebrew. In fact, thereis nothing in the poetry of the Jewish poets of the pre-Islamic daysto distinguish it from the poetry of the Arab poets in language, ideasand themes. They even inter-married with the Arabs. In fact, nothingdistinguished them from the common Arabs except religion.Notwithstanding this, they had not lost their identity among the Arabsand had kept their Jewish prejudice alive most ardently and jealously.They had adopted superficial Arabism because they could not survive inArabia without it.

  2. Because of this Arabism the westernorientalists have been misled into thinking that perhaps they were notreally Israelites but Arabs who had embraced Judaism, or that at leastmajority of them consisted of the Arab Jews. But there is nohistorical proof to show that the Jews ever engaged in anyproselytizing activities in Hejaz, or their rabbis invited the Arabsto embrace Judaism like the Christian priests and missionaries. On thecontrary, we see that they prided themselves upon their Israelitedescent and racial prejudices. They called the Arabs the Gentiles,which did not mean illiterate or uneducated but savage and uncivilizedpeople. They believed that the Gentiles did not possess any humanrights; these were only reserved for the Israelites, and therefore, itwas lawful and right for the Israelites to defraud them of theirproperties by every fair and foul means. Apart from the Arab chiefs,they did not consider the common Arabs fit enough to have equal statuswith them even if they entered Judaism. No historical proof isavailable, nor is there any evidence in the Arabian traditions, thatsome Arab tribe or prominent clan might have accepted Judaism. However,mention has been made of some individuals, who had become Jews. TheJews, however, were more interested in their trade and business thanin the preaching of their religion. That is why Judaism did not spreadas a religion and creed in Hejaz but remained only as a mark of prideand distinction of a few Israelite tribes. The Jewish rabbis, however,had a flourishing business in granting amulets and charms, fortunetelling and sorcery, because of which they were held in great awe bythe Arabs for their "knowledge" and practical wisdom.

  3. Economicallythey were much stronger than the Arabs. Since they bad emigrated frommore civilized and culturally advanced countries of Palestine andSyria, they knew many such arts as were unknown to the Arabs; theyalso enjoyed trade relations with the outside world. Hence, they hadcaptured the business of importing grain in Yathrib and the upperHejaz and exporting dried dates to other countries. Poultry farmingand fishing also were mostly under their controls They were good atcloth weaving too. They had also set up wine shops here and there,where they sold wine which they imported from Syria. The Bani Qainuqagenerally practised crafts such as that of the goldsmith, blacksmithand vessel maker. In all these occupations, trade and business theseJews earned exorbitant profits, but their chief occupation was tradingin money lending in which they had ensnared the Arabs of thesurrounding areas. More particularly the chiefs and elders of the Arabtribes who were given to a life of pomp, bragging and boasting on thestrength of borrowed money were deeply indebted to them. They lentmoney on high rates of interest and then would charge compound interest,which one could hardly clear off once one was involved in it. Thus,they had rendered the Arabs economically hollow, but it had naturallyinduced a deep rooted hatred among the common Arabs against the Jews.

  4. The demand of their trade and economic interests was that theyshould neither estrange one Arab tribe by befriending another, nortake part in their mutual wars. But, on the other hand, it was also intheir interests, that they should not allow the Arabs to be united andshould keep them fighting and entrenched against each other, for theyknew that whenever the Arab tribes united, they would not allow themto remain in possession of their 1large properties, gardens and fertilelands, which they had come to own through their profiteering and moneylending business. Furthermore, each of their tribes also had to enterinto alliance with one or another powerful Arab tribe for the sake ofits own protection so that no other powerful tribe should overawe itby its might. Because of this they had not only to take part in themutual wars of the Arabs but they often had to go to war in support ofthe Arab tribe to which their tribe was tied in alliance againstanother Jewish tribe which was allied to the enemy tribe. In Yathribthe Bani Quraizah and the Bani an-Nadir were the allies of the Auswhile the Bani Qainuqa of the Khazraj. A little before the HolyProphet's emigration, these Jewish tribes had confronted each other insupport of their respective allies in the bloody war that took placebetween the Aus and the Khazraj at Buath.

Such were the conditionswhen Islam came to Madinah, and ultimately an Islamic State came intoexistence after the Holy Prophet's (upon whom be Allah's peace)arrival there. One of the first things that he accomplished soon afterestablishing this state was unification of the Aus and the Khazraj andthe Emigrants into a brotherhood, and the second was that he concludeda treaty between the Muslims and the Jews on definite conditions, inwhich it was pledged that neither party would encroach on the rightsof the other, and both would unite in a joint defense against theexternal enemies. Some important clauses of this treaty are as follows,which clearly show what the Jews and the Muslims had pledged to adhereto in their mutual relationship:

"The Jews must bear their expensesand the Muslims their expenses. Each must help the other againstanyone who attacks the people of this document. They must seek mutualadvice and consultation, and loyalty is a protection against treachery.They shall sincerely wish one another well. Their relations will begoverned by piety and recognition of the rights of others, and not bysin and wrongdoing. The wronged must be helped. The Jews must pay withthe believers so long as the war lasts. Yathrib shall be a sanctuaryfor the people of this document. If any dispute or controversy likelyto cause trouble should arise, it must be referred to God and toMuhammad the Apostle of God; Quraish and their helpers shall not begiven protection. The contracting parties are bound to help oneanother against any attack on Yathrib; Every one shall be responsiblefor the defence of the portion to which he belongs" (lbn Hisham, vol.ii, pp. 147 to 150).

This was on absolute and definitive covenant tothe conditions of which the Jews themselves had agreed. But not verylong after this they began to show hostility towards the Holy Prophetof Allah (upon whom be Allah's peace) and Islam and the Muslims, andtheir hostility and perverseness went on increasing day by day. Itsmain causes were three:

First, they envisaged the Holy Prophet (uponwhom be Allah's peace) merely as a chief of his people, who should becontent to have concluded a political agreement with them and shouldonly concern himself with the worldly , interests of his group. Butthey found that he was extending an invitation to belief in Allah andthe Apostleship and the Book (which also included belief in their ownProphets and scriptures), and was urging the people to give updisobedience of Allah and adopt obedience to the Divine Commands andabide by the moral laws of their own prophets. This they could not putup with. They feared that if this universal ideological movementgained momentum it would destroy their rigid religiosity and wipe outtheir racial nationhood.

Second, when they saw that the Aus and theKhazraj and the Emigrants were uniting into a brotherhood and thepeople from the Arab tribes of the surrounding areas, who enteredIslam, were also joining this Islamic Brotherhood of Madinah andforming a religious community, they feared that the selfish policythat they had been following of sowing discord between the Arab tribesfor the promotion of their own well being and interests for centuries,would not work in the new system, but they would face a united frontof the Arabs against which their intrigues and machinations would notsucceed.

Third, the work that the Holy Messenger of Allah (upon whombe Allah's 'peace) was carrying out of reforming the society andcivilization included putting an end to all unlawful methods" inbusiness and mutual dealings. More than that; he had declared takingand giving of interest also as impure and unlawful earning. Thiscaused them the fear that if his rule became established in Arabia, hewould declare interest legally forbidden, and in this they saw theirown economic disaster and death.

For these reasons they maderesistance and opposition to the Holy Prophet their national ideal.They would never hesitate to employ any trick and machination, anydevice and cunning, to harm him. They spread every kind of falsehoodso as to cause distrust against him in the people's minds. Theycreated every kind of doubt, suspicion and misgiving in the hearts ofthe new converts so as to turn them back from Islam. They would makefalse profession of Islam and then would turn apostate so that it mayengender more and more misunderstandings among the people againstIslam and the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace). They wouldconspire with the hypocrites to create mischief and would cooperatewith every group and tribe hostile to Islam. They would create riftsbetween the Muslims and would do whatever they could to stir them upto mutual feuds and fighting. The people of the Aus and the Khazrajtribes were their special target, with whom they had been allied forcenturies. Making mention of the war of Buath before them they wouldremind them of their previous enmities so that they might again resortto the sword against each other and shatter their bond of fraternityinto which Islam had bound them. They would resort to every kind ofdeceit and fraud in order to harm the Muslims economically. Wheneverone of those with whom that had business dealings, would accept Islam,they would do whatever they could to cause him financial loss. If heowed them something they would worry and harass him by making repeateddemands, and if they owed him something, they would withhold thepayment and would publicly say that at the time the bargain was madehe professed a different religion, and since he had changed hisreligion, they were no longer under any obligation towards him.Several instances of this nature have been cited in the explanation ofverse 75 of Surah Al Imran given in the commentaries by Tabari, Nisaburi,Tabrisi and in Ruh al Ma'ani.

They had adopted this hostile attitudeagainst the covenant even before the Battle of Badr. But when the HolyProphet (upon whom be Allah's peace) and the Muslims won a decisivevictory over the Quraish at Badr, they were filled with grief andanguish, malice and anger. They were in fact anticipating that in thatwar the powerful Quraish would deal a death blow to the Muslims. Thatis why even before the news of the Islamic victory reached Madinahthey had begun to spread the rumor that the Holy Prophet (upon whombe Allah's peace) had fallen a martyr and the Muslims had been routed,and the Quraish army under Abu Jahl was advancing on Madinah. But whenthe battle was decided against their hopes and wishes, they burst withanger and grief. Ka'b bin Ashraf, the chief of the Bani an-Nadir,cried out:"By God, if Muhammad has actually killed these nobles ofArabia, the earth's belly would be better for us than its back." Thenhe went to Makkah and incited the people to vengeance by writing andreciting provocative elegies for the Quraish chiefs killed at Badr.Then he returned to Madinah and composed lyrical verses of aninsulting nature about the Muslim women. At last, enraged with hismischief, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) sent Muhammadbin Maslamah Ansari in Rabi al-Awwal, A. H. 3, and had him slain. (IbnSad, Ibn Hisham, Tabari).

The first Jewish tribe which, after theBattle of Badr, openly and collectively broke their covenant were theBani Qainuqa. They lived in a locality inside the city of Madinah. Asthey practised the crafts of the goldsmith, blacksmith and vesselmaker, the people of Madinah had to visit their shops fairlyfrequently. They were proud of their bravery and valor. Beingblacksmiths by profession even their children were well armed, andthey could instantly muster 700 fighting men from among themselves.They were also arrogantly aware that they enjoyed relations ofconfederacy with the Khazraj and Abdullah bin Ubbay, the chief of the,Khazraj, was their chief supporter. At the victory of Badr, theybecame so provoked that they began to trouble and harass the Muslimsand their women in particular, who visited their shops. By and bythings came to such a pass that one day a Muslim woman was strippednaked publicly in their bazaar. This led to a brawl in which a Muslimand a Jew were killed. Thereupon the Holy Prophet (upon whom beAllah's peace) himself visited their locality, got them together andcounseled them on decent conduct. But the reply that they gave was;"O Muhammad, you perhaps think we are like the Quraish; they did notknow fighting; therefore, you overpowered them. But when you come incontact with us, you will see how men fight."This was in clear words adeclaration of war. Consequently, the Holy Prophet (upon whom beAllah's peace) laid siege to their quarters towards the end of Shawwal(and according to some others, of Dhi Qa'dah) A. H. 2. The siege hadhardly lasted for a fortnight when they surrendered and all theirfighting men were tied and taken prisoners. Now Abdullah bin Ubayycame up in support of them and insisted that they should be pardoned.The Holy Prophet conceded his request and decided that the BaniQainuqa would be exiled from Madinah leaving their properties, armourand tools of trade behind. (Ibn Sa'd, Ibn Hisham, Tarikh Tabari).

Forsome time after these punitive measures (i. e. the banishment of theQainuqa and killing of Ka'b bin Ashraf the Jews remained so terrorstricken that they did not dare commit any further mischief. But laterwhen in Shawwal, A. H. 3, the Quraish in order to avenge themselves forthe defeat at Badr, marched against Madinah with great preparations,and the Jews saw that only a thousand men had marched out with theHoly Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) as against three thousandmen of the Quraish, and even they were deserted by 300 hypocrites whoreturned to Madinah, they committed the first and open breach of thetreaty by refusing to join the Holy Prophet in the defense of the cityalthough they were bound to it. Then, when in the Battle of Uhud theMuslims suffered reverses, they were further emboldened. So much sothat the Bani an-Nadir made a secret plan to kill the Holy Prophet(upon whom be Allah's peace) though the plan failed before it could beexecuted. According to the details, after the incident of Bi'r Maunah(Safar, A. H. 4) Amr bin Umayyah Damri slew by mistake two men of theBani Amir in retaliation, who actually belonged to a tribe which wasallied to the Muslims, but Amr had mistaken them for the men of theenemy. Because of this mistake their blood money became obligatory onthe Muslims. Since the Bani an-Nadir were also a party in the alliancewith the Bani Amir, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) wentto their clan along with some of his Companions to ask for their helpin paying the blood money. Outwardly they agreed to contribute, as hewished, but secretly they plotted that a person should go up to thetop of the house by whose wall the Holy Prophet was sitting and drop arock on him to kill him. But before they could execute their plan,Allah informed him in time and be immediately got up and returned toMadinah.

Now there was no question of showing them any furtherconcession. The Holy Prophet at once sent to them the ultimatum thatthe treachery they had meditated against him had come to hisknowledge; therefore, they were to leave Madinah within ten days; ifanyone of them was found staying behind in their quarters, he would beput to the sword. Meanwhile Abdullah bin Ubayy sent them the messagethat he would help them with two thousand men and that the BaniQuraizah and Bani Ghatafan also would come to their aid; therefore,they should stand firm and should not go. On this false assurance theyresponded to the Holy Prophet's ultimatum saying that they would notleave Madinah and he could do whatever was in his power. Consequently,in Rabi' al-Awwal, A. H. 4, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah'speace) laid siege to them, and after a few days of the siege (whichaccording to some traditions were 6 and according to others 15 days)they agreed to leave Madinah on the condition that they could retainall their property which they could carry on thee camels, except thearmor. Thus, Madinah was rid of this second mischievous tribe of Jews.Only two of the Bani an-Nadir became Muslims and stayed behind. Otherswent to Syria and Khaiber.

This is the event that has been discussed in this Surah.

Theme and Subject Matter

The theme of the Surah as stated above, is an appraisal of the battleagainst the Bani an Nadir. In this, on the whole, four things havebeen discussed.

  1. In the first four verses the world has been,admonished to take heed of the fate that had just befallen the Banian-Nadir. A major tribe which was as strong in numbers as the Muslims,whose people boasted of far more wealth and possession who were by nomeans ill equipped militarily and whose forts were well fortifiedcould not stand siege even for a few Days, and expressed theirreadiness to accept banishment from their centuries old, wellestablished settlement even though not a single man from among themwas slain. Allah says that this happened not because of any powerpossessed by the Muslims but because the Jews had tried to resist andfight Allah and His Messenger, and those who dare to resist the powerof Allah, always meet with the same fate.

  2. In verse 5, the rule ofthe law of war that has been enunciated is: the destruction caused inthe enemy territory for military purposes does not come under"spreading mischief in the earth."

  3. In vv 6-10 it has been statedhow the lands and properties which come under the control of theIslamic State as a result of war or peace terms, are to be managed. Asit was the first ever occasion that the Muslims took control of aconquered territory, the law concerning it was laid down for theirguidance.

  4. In vv. 11-17 the attitude that the hypocrites hadadopted on the occasion of the battle against the Bani an-Nadir hasbeen reviewed and the causes underlying it have been pointed out.

  5. The whole of the last section (vv. 18-24) is an admonition for allthose people who had professed to have affirmed the faith and joinedthe Muslim community, but were devoid of the true spirit of the faith.In it they have been told what is the real demand of the Faith, whatis the real difference between piety and wickedness, what is the placeand importance of the Quran which they professed to believe in, andwhat are the attributes of God in Whom they claimed to have believed.

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